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Osteoporosis — is a metabolic bone disease resulting from an imbalance between resorption and bone formation, characterized by low bone mass, impaired bone microarchitectonics, leading to enhanced bone fragility and increased risk of fracture.

In osteoporosis, bone is a "dissolution" or thinning of bone density.

To the appearance of osteoporosis often causes age-related changes, long reception of hormonal preparations, presence of concomitant chronic diseases nauschayuschih metabolism, including calcium metabolism.

Most often bone osteoporosis occur with hip and vertebral bodies compression fractures.

Osteoporosis is common in older women. Risk factors include: being small and thin, having a family history of osteoporosis, taking certain medicines, being a white or asian woman, having a low bone density.

Osteoporosis classification

A. Primary osteoporosis.

  1. Postmenopausal osteoporosis (I type)
  2. Senile osteoporosis (II type)
  3. Juvenile osteoporosis
  4. Idiopathic osteoporosis

B. Secondary osteoporosis.

  1. Associated with the the primary disease (endocrine system — primary ovarian insufficiency, hyperthyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism, rheumatoid; digestive system; kidneys; genetic disorders, etc.)
  2. An iatrogenic (due to treatment with corticosteroids, heparin, immunosuppressant, thyroid hormone, antacids, etc.)

On the frontal cut of the vertebral body revealed cancellous bone osteoporosis, which subsequently can lead to a compression fracture.


Risk factors for osteoporosis

  1. Genetical:
    • race
    • sex
    • hereditary pathology
  2. Nutrition:
    • calcium deficiency
    • alcohol
    • caffeine
    • excessive salt intake
    • excessive intake of animal protein
  3. The habits:
    • smoking
    • reduced physical activity
  4. Endocrine status:
    • menopause, oophorectomy (lack of sex hormones)
    • early menopause
  5. Drugs:
    • heparin
    • anticoagulants
    • chemotherapy
    • immunosuppressants
    • corticosteroids
    • thyroid hormone drugs


Osteoporosis diagnosis

Osteoporosis diagnosis, bone begins with the examination by a doctor. Risk of osteoporosis lies in its possible complications — in pathological fractures of the affected bones or groups of bones.

The most common situation — it's compression fractures of vertebral bodies on the background of osteoporosis in the elderly. With the reduction of the density of the body of one vertebra or the bodies of several vertebrae there is a reduction of its height, or a so-called compression fracture.

For that to happen a compression fracture of spine elderly man simply uncomfortable to sit on a hard surface. If such an elderly man accidentally stumbles and falls, or tossing and turning in bed, then it may be a fracture of the femoral neck.

Densitometry - measuring procedure for bone density.

The procedure for measuring bone density with suspected osteoporosis bone called densitometry. Densitometry performed on a special measuring equipment.

In the case of surgical treatment of spine fracture will require modern diagnostic procedures such as vertebral spine computed tomography (CT).


Osteoporosis treatment

Conservative treatment of osteoporosis, bone involves taking calcium supplements (Calcium Sandoz) and osteoprotektorov bisphosphonates (Aklasta). In order to reduce pain in vertebral compression fractures is recommended intranasal spray Calcitonin.

It is very important to maintain an active lifestyle in patients with osteoporosis, as well as vitamin "D".

If there is evidence of a patient with a complicated course of osteoporosis in the form of hip fracture or compression fracture of spine (vertebral bodies) can be a special corrective spine surgery.

Postoperatively, prescribers and osteoprotektory calcium (Calcium Sandoz and Aklasta).