Orchitis, didymitis, testicular inflammation

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Orchitis, didymitis, testicular inflammation

Orchitis is a condition in which the testicle becomes inflamed. As a rule, the disease is a complication of various infectious diseases (in most cases of mumps), diseases of the genitourinary system (urethritis, prostatitis, epididymitis, etc.), genital infections, testicular trauma.

Male genital anatomy.


Types of orchitis

Depending on the causative agent of the disease, orchitis (testicular inflammation) is divided into:

  • specific, which are caused by the causative agents of syphilis, brucellosis, tuberculosis, actinomycosis, etc.
  • nonspecific are caused by viruses, bacteria, protozoa

Recently, the most common cause of orchitis (inflammation of the testicle) are sexually transmitted infections: Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Gonococcus, Trichomonas, etc.


Symptoms of orchitis

According to the severity of the symptoms and the duration of the course of orchitis (inflammation of the testicle), acute and chronic inflammation of the testicle are distinguished. The main symptoms of acute orchitis (testicular inflammation) are:

  • pain in the scrotum - the patient experiences severe pain in the half of the scrotum where the inflammatory process began. Pain radiates to the groin, perineum, lower back, and sacrum
  • the scrotum enlarges, its skin becomes smooth, red, and hot

In patients with orchitis, on palpation, the inflamed testicle is painful, its size is enlarged, the general state of health worsens (fever, headache, nausea, chills).


Diagnosis of orchitis

For the diagnosis of testicular inflammation (orchitis) is carried out:

  • microscopic examination of a urethral smear
  • urinalysis in three portions
  • PCR diagnostics for genital infections
  • sowing for opportunistic flora with the determination of sensitivity to antibiotics
  • ultrasound
  • ureteroscopy
  • microscopic examination of the secretion of the prostate gland and analysis for prostatic antigen (if prostatitis is suspected)
Normal ultrasound of the scrotum.


Treatment of orchitis

Treatment of orchitis (inflammation of the testicle) requires an integrated approach. To do this, suppression of infection, treatment of concomitant diseases, elimination of the causes contributing to the development of orchitis (inflammation of the testicle) should be carried out:

  • antibiotic therapy
  • alcohol-balsamic compresses
  • fixation of the scrotum

In the chronic form of orchitis (testicular inflammation), when acute inflammation has been removed, physiotherapy procedures are indicated. In case of suppuration of the testicle, it is opened and washed, if this does not bring a positive result, then orchiectomy is performed (removal of the affected testicle).

If you do not start the treatment of orchitis (testicular inflammation) promptly, then the disease becomes chronic. As a rule, chronic inflammation of the testicle (chronic orchitis) occurs against the background of chronic prostatitis, vesiculitis, urethritis, etc. Without appropriate treatment, orchitis (inflammation of the testicle), after 1-2 months, the testicle begins to atrophy, a purulent process may develop, and the inflammation spreads to the second testicle. All this leads to a significant decrease in sperm, which is produced in them and, as a result, is the cause of infertility.